來源： 瀏覽： 發布日期：2018-07-04 17:50
題干：movement: spread more unpredictably(C10-T4-R1 T1)
原文：The wildfire themselves, experts say, are generally hotter, faster, and spread more erratically than in the past.
Unpredictably --- erratically
題干：size of fires: 10 times greater on average than two decades ago(C10-T4-R1 T2)
原文：Megafires, also called ‘siege fires’, are the increasingly frequent blazes that burn 500,000 acres or more-10 times the size of the average forest fire of 20 years ago.
Two decades ago --- 20 years ago
題干：rainfall: below average(C10-T4-R1 T3)
原文：One explanation for the trend to more superhot fires is that the region, which usually has dry summers, has had significantly below normal precipitation in many recent years.
Rainfall --- precipitation
Average --- normal
題干：more brush to act as fuel(C10-T4-R1 T4)
原文：The unintentional consequence has been to halt the natural eradication of underbrush, now the primary fuel for megafires.
Brush --- underbrush
題干：extended fire seasons(C10-T4-R1 T5)
原文：Second is fire seasons that on average are 78 days longer than they were 20 years ago.
Extended --- longer
題干：more building of homes in vulnerable places(C10-T4-R1 T6)
原文：Third is increased construction of homes in wooded areas.
More building --- increased construction
題干：The amount of open space in California has diminished over the last ten years.(C10-T4-R1 T7) TRUE
原文：In California, where population growth has averaged more than 600,000 a year for at least a decade, more residential housing is being built.
Last ten years --- a decade
題干：Many experts believe California has made little progress in readying itself to fight fires. (C10-T4-R1 T8) FALSE
原文：That said, many experts give California high marks for making progress on preparedness in recent years, after some of the largest fires in state history scorched thousands of acres, burned thousands of homes, and killed numerous people.
Progress in readying itself --- making progress on preparedness
題干：Personnel in the past have been criticized for mishandling fire containment.(C10-T4-R1 T9) TRUE
原文：Stung in the past by criticism of bungling that allowed fires to spread when they might have been contained, personnel are meeting the peculiar challenges of neighbourhood-and canyon-hoping fires better than previously, observers say.
Criticised --- criticism
題干：California has replaced a range of firefighting tools.
(C10-T4-R1 T10) TRUE
原文：State promises to provide more up-to-date engines, planes, and helicopters to fight fires have been fulfilled.
Firefighting tools --- engines, planes, and helicopters
題干：More firefighters have been hired to improve fire-fighting capacity.(C10-T4-R1 T11) NOT GIVEN
原文：Besides providing money to upgrade the fire engines that must traverse the mammoth state and wind along serpentine canyon roads, the state has invested in better command-and-control facilities as well as in the strategies to run them.
題干：Citizens and government groups disapprove of the efforts of different states and agencies working together.(C10-T4-R1 T12) FALSE
原文：There is a sense among both government officials and residents that the speed, dedication, and coordination of firefighters from several states and jurisdictions are resulting in greater efficiency than in past ‘siege fire’ situations.
Citizens and government groups --- government officials and residents
題干：Randy Jacobs believes that loss of life from fires will continue at the same levels, despite changes made.(C10-T4-R1 T13) FALSE
原文：‘I am extraordinarily impressed by the improvements we have witnessed,’ says Randy Jacobs, a Southern California-based lawyer who has had to evacuate both his home and business to escape wildfires. ‘Notwithstanding all the damage that will continue to be caused by wildfires, we will no longer suffer the loss of life endured in the past because of the fire prevention and firefighting measures that have been put in place,’ he says.
Changes made --- improvements we have witnessed